‘Esotericism: Gurdjieff & Ouspensky’, (by Nikodemos)

In this series of short articles are examined the teachings and works of these important esotericists of the 20th century whose traditions continue to our days (2017 – 2018). The writer, who wishes to remain pseudonymous, did not study with Gurdjieff and Ouspensky but his relation with them and his teachers becomes apparent.

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‘Philosophy and Selfrealization in the Rgveda’, by N. Kazanas

This paper presents evidence that man’s highest good, the shreyas, as taught by the Bhagavad Gitaa and the Upanishads, the aatmajNaana ‘Self-knowledge’, brahmajNaana‘knowledge of the Absolute’, moksha ‘liberation’ of the Vedaanta and related themes, are already present in the RV (=Rigveda), not just as spermatic ideas but very fully. Only the terminology differs.
This paper was published in 2005 in D.P. Chattopadhyaya (ed) Self, Society and Science…PHISPC, Centre for Studies in Civilizations, N. Delhi.

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‘Advaita & Gnosticism’, by N. Kazanas

A study on the possible connection between the ancient Indian philosophical system Advaita (an aspect of Vedanta) and certain ideas that circulated in the first two centuries of the Christian Era in the Easter Mediterranean and particularly in Egypt. Also, an attempt to trace great philosophical ideas e.g. The Unity of Being, The identity of Man’s self with the Godhead, etc in Hermetic texts, Vedanta, Christianity, Gnostic writings, Judaism, Greek Thought and Egyptian culture.
Published in VVRI Research Bulletin (Hoshiarpur) vol 2 (43-112), 2003.ivilizations, N. Delhi.

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‘Vedic Religio-philosophical Thought’, Sept. 2003

Part A of the study Vedic, Mesopotamian and Egyptian Religiophilosophical Thought (in print by PHISPC in the volume Chain of Golden Civilizations). 
This paper is a study of Vedic thought tracing the theme of One and Many and Man’s Self-realization from the RV to the Upanishads. In this the writer examines some ideas about the nature of ‘civilization’ and traces a unifying thread running through the RV, AV, Brahmanas and Upanishads, i.e. man’s return to his source which is the Supreme Godhead, Itself unmanifest but the Primal Cause of all manifestations.

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‘Vedic and Egyptian Affinities’

This paper was written independently in 2002 and has been published in 2006 in PuratattvaThis piece was incorporated in the study Vedic, Mesopotamian and Egyptian Religiophilosophical Thought (in print by PHISPC in the volume Chain of Golden Civilizations)

There are more than 20 motifs/themes exhibiting close affinities in the religious texts of the Vedic and Egyptian peoples. Some like the Sungod’s boat, the Water as a primal cosmogonic element, the Cow of plenty and the sacred Bull are common to the Mesopotamian culture too. Some are quite extraordinary and occur only here with some weak echoes in other Indoeuropean branches: the lotus-born one, the eye running off, etc, including many elements in the famous Isis-Osiris tale. These affinities are close and suggest either a common origin for both cultures or cross influences. However, most of the motifs, including the Isis-Osiris and Yama tales, have correspondences in other IE traditions: this fact suggests that the motifs are inherited in the Vedic texts and not borrowed from Egypt. Thus we must conclude either that Saptasindhu, the land of the Vedic people, influenced Egypt or that both cultures derive or borrow from a third unknown one. The former case is difficult to determine as there is no firm evidence for an early contact between Egypt and Saptasindhu. Consequently, without entirely ruling out the possibility of Vedic influences on Egyptian culture we must assume a devolution from an older unknown civilization.

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‘Plato and the Upanishads’ by N. Kazanas

Plato and Upanishads has been published in 2005 by The Adyar Library and Research Center, Chennai, India. Prof. Kazanas examines here some apparent and significant similarities as well as some important differences between the Dialogues of Plato and the (early) Upanishads. The essay is quite scholarly and readable.

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‘Philosophy in Hellenistic and Roman Times’ by N. Kazanas

This study examines the main philosophical trends after Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. It includes the Cynics and other Socratic offshoots; the Epicureans, the Stoics and the Sceptics; Also certain individuals like Cicero, Seneca, Philo (Alex), Plutarch et al. It attempts to extract Christ’s teaching itself from the early sources ignoring the usual theological doctrines; the Gnostic texts are also examined in this connection. It ends with a look at Plotinos and the subsequent Neoplatonists.

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‘Greek Philosophy up to Aristotle’ by N. Kazanas, November 2003

This study outlines the philosophical ideas in Ancient Greece from the Homeric epics to Aristotle examining briefly the essential views of every thinker. Of course, with the Pre-socratics one relies only on the extant fragments. (It is to be published in India by the PHISPC).

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Map of the Greek world, early 6th century BCE

‘Education & Ethics’ by N. Kazanas

This paper was presented at the New Delhi Conference organized by UNESCO and the Indian Ministry of Civilization on ‘Dialogue among Civilizations: Quest for New Perspectives’ 9-10th July 2003.

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